Vol. 1 / No. 2 / Published : 2005-01
Original Article :
Pengaruh residu khloramfenikol dalam udang windu terhadap kejadian anemia aplastik pada mencit
- Soedjajadi Keman*2
- Ririh Yudhastuti*3
- Dinas Perikanan dan Kelautan Propinsi Jawa Timur
- Dosen di Bagian Kesehatan Lingkungan FKM UNAIR
The utilization of chloramphenicol on fishery product including shrimps, begins at the breeding, nurturing, post yield processing, and marketing phases and continuous onto the food industry and fishery medicine industry phases effecting in remains of chloramphenicol residue in shrimps for human consumption. Therefore the aim of this study was to prove that chloramphenicol residue in shrimps for human consumption influences the appearance of aplastic anemia. The study was a laboratory factorial design conducted from May 5, 2004 until July 4, 2004 on 36 mice (Mus musculus species) by inducing the consumption of shrimps (Penaeus monodon) with chloramphenicol residue of <0,3 ppb and of >0,3 ppb for 15 days, 30 days, 45 days, and 60 days durations with three times repetitions. The results showed that chloramphenicol levels both <0,3 ppb and >0,3 ppb had real influences on the appearance of temporary aplastic anemia on mice when subjected to continuous consumptions at extensive quantities and durations, marked by decrease in blood haemoglobin (Hb) from normal conditions as well as changes in erythrocyte form, indicate of the underdeveloped erythrocyte. Mice’s blood during experiment showed a positive indication of chloramphenicol. Decreases in blood Hb occurred from the initial condition of 16.521 g% to 13.281 g% at the 15 days duration, 13.672 g% at the 30 days duration, 14.512 g% at the 45 days duration, and increases to 15.562 g% at the end of the 60 days duration. Erythrocyte form changed from the normochrome normocyter initial condition to the mild hypochrome normocyter, mild hypochrome anisocytosis, hypochrome anisocytosis, and subsequently macroerythrocyte dominated hypochrome anisocytosis at the end of the experiment. Interesting changes occurred at the 30 days duration treatment where mild hypochrome anisocytosis and hypochrome anisocytosis occurred marked by mildly pale cellular colorizations with cellular forms varying from normal, microerythrocyte, to macroerythrocyte. The blood Hb and erythrocyte cellular form normal conditions at the end of the experiment was indicative of resistance due continuous consumption followed by the formation of new normochrome normocyter erythrocytes. It is concluded that extensive quantities and durations of the consumption of shrimps containing chloramphenicol residue effects in the appearance of temporary aplastic anemia on mice marked by the decrease of blood Hb and the change of erythrocyte cell forms. It is suggested to pursue a further research to identify the parameters for non-hazardous chloramphenicol residue in shrimps for it to be safe for human consumption, as well as to determine the proper treatment and processing method to reduce chloramphenicol residue for safe consumption.
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